READING & SPEAKING
A. 1. What common celebrations in the world do you know?
2. What was the last celebration or ceremony you attended? What was it like?
B. Read and find out what the purposes of celebrations are.
COMMON CELEBRATIONS ALL AROUND THE WORLD
Celebrations are times when people come together and share expressions of love, respect and cooperation. They are established by customs and culture. Today, few follow old traditions, but some of them survive although there have been some changes. Throughout the world, there are various traditional festivals, gatherings and celebrations which represent traditional culture such as New Year’s Eve, the Rio Carnival and §eb-i Arus.
New Year’s Eve is generally celebrated in most countries on 31 December. People welcome the new year at midnight, when “Old Father Time” (with a long white beard) is replaced by the “New Year’s Child” (dressed only in nappies). They make New Year’s resolutions. They decide to “turn over a new leaf” and improve themselves in some way during the new year. Families gather and exchange gifts and regards and best wishes with each other.
The Rio Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is said to be one of the most enchanting and fascinating festivals in the world. It comes about at the peak of summer, and lasts for four days. The festivities attract thousands of people from all corners of the world. The Rio Carnival’s major highlight, the samba, is seen in the performances of the Rio Carnival’s samba schools. The Rio Carnival samba parades are unbelievable with continuous streams of colour, motion and rhythm. Judges grade the contestants and the schools on everything from enthusiasm, discipline and costume to rhythm, song and dance to choose the best samba school. Winning songs are quickly popularized and their composers become famous. The best costumes receive wide recognition.
§eb-i Arus (Night of Union) is a ceremony held every year on 17 December to commemorate the day of Mevlana’s death and his reunion with God. It lasts for a week welcoming hundreds of visitors from abroad to Konya, Turkey. Mevlana was a great mystic philosopher who addressed all people regardless of their faith or ethnic origin, speaking of love of God, truth, humanity and nature. He wrote love poems to truth, that is, God. Divine love is the only aim of spiritual life. Everything in the universe is spinning and the dervishes seek the true love of God by spinning themselves. They dance to music played on the ney. “Sema” is the ceremony of the whirling dance. The dancers (the dervishes) are called “semazens”. They turn counter-clockwise and carry on dancing with their right arm held up in the air, their left foot remaining on the ground and their right foot lifted. This way, their soul is released from the body and comes nearer God.
Celebrations aim both to increase the spirit of unity in society, and to present the cultural wealth of the places where these ceremonies are held. They create an appropriate atmosphere for people to come together and enhance cooperative efforts in society.
C. Fill in the chart.
NEW YEAR’S EVE THE RIO CARNIVAL ŞEB-İ ARUS
D. Read the definitions and find the words in the article which have the same meaning.
1. very attractive : f (parag. 3)
2. happens : c a (parag. 3)
3. celebrations : f (parag. 3)
4. lines of people or vehicles moving slowly as part of a ceremony : p (parag. 3)
5. appreciation : r (parag. 3)
6. keep in the memory by a celebration : c (parag. 4)
7. strong religious belief : f (parag. 4)
8. connected with God, holy : d (parag. 4)
9. continue doing something : c o (parag. 4)
10. improve : e (parag. 5)
E. Talk about the differences and similarities related to celebrations in Turkey and abroad.
LISTENING & WRITING
A. 1. What are the special days in Turkey?
2. What do you do to celebrate them?
B. Listen and find out what they are talking about.
C. Listen again and write the names of the festivals.
D. Answer the questions.
1. Which festival did Wilhelm take part in?
2. Which festivals are presents from Atatürk?
3. What are the rituals and customs of Sugar Festival?
4. Which festival is celebrated on May 6th? What do people generally do that day?
E. Imagine that you are Wilhelm and write a letter to your family about Turkish
celebrations and traditions.
A. 1. What do you think of birthdays?
2. What do you usually do on your birthday celebrations?
B. Read and find out what nationality the teenagers are.
Hans : In Denmark, if a flag is flown outside a window, it means someone who lives in that house is having a birthday party. How do you celebrate your birthdays, Leo? Are they similar to ours?
Leo : Well, we don’t have personal birthday
ceremonies in Africa. Instead, we hold initiation ceremonies for groups. And we should learn the laws, beliefs, customs, songs and dances of our tribes when we reach at certain ages.
Gabriella : We have also a similar tradition in Argentina. I’ll be 15 next year and I have to learn waltz. Because when a girl turns 15, she has a huge party and dances the waltz with her father and other boys.
Marco : Well, last year my friends pulled my ears 14 times because I was 15 then. In Brazil, the birthday child receives a pull on the earlobe for each year she or he has been alive. They also give the first slice of cake to their special friends or mom and dad.
Wong : Wow, that sounds interesting! In my country, China, the birthday child pays respect to his or her parents and then receives a gift or money. Friends and relatives are invited to lunch and noodles are served to wish the birthday child a long life.
Petra : I had a nice birthday party last year. There were 16 candles on my bithday cake plus one for good luck. After dinner, the whole family gathered and I blew out the candles while my family was singing the birthday song. In Germany, we believe that if all of the candles are blown in one try, then the wish of the birthday person will come true. I did so and I had a lovely year.
C. Write in which country people have...
1. a flying flag outside a window.
2. no personal birthday ceremonies
3. a huge party when girls are 15.
4. the tradition of pulling ears.
5. noodles for lunch.
6. an extra candle for good luck.
D. 1. Give information about how the teenagers in your area celebrate their birthdays. Do you
agree or disagree with the ways of celebration?
2. Read the traditions in the USA and Canada. Then express the similarities and differences between them and the ones in your country.
In the United States and Canada...
1. you’re supposed to kiss a friend at midnight on New Year’s Eve.
2. when a child is born, the parents often give presents to friends.
3. when you come back from a vacation, you are expected to bring small gifts for your friends.
4. when a couple gets married, the bride’s family usually pays for the reception.
5. when someone moves into a new home, it is the custom to give a ‘house-warming’ gift.
e.g. In the United States and Canada people are supposed to kiss a friend at midnight on New Year’s Eve. And in our country we are also supposed to kiss everybody near us at midnight to wish each other a happy and healthy new year.
A. 1. What are the common wedding traditions in your area?
2. Have you ever been to a wedding ceremony? Whose wedding was it?
3. Look at the pictures and talk about them.
B. Listen and write the names of the countries below the correct pictures.
C. Work in pairs and fill in the chart.
COUNTRY WEDDING TRADITION REASON
Czech Republic planting and decorating a tree to live a tree
Egypt wearing on the ring finger the ring finger has the vein of love
Italy tying a ribbon to symbolize between the
Pakistan bride wears on the day of her
wedding to symbolize happiness
India bride knocks down a container of uncooked rice and enters the house putting forward her right foot first to bring to the house.
Turkey applying to bride's hands to symbolize marriage
D. Write a paragraph about the traditions you find most interesting.
suffix —th: / 0 /
• forms nouns from some verbs and adjectives. growth - width
• forms ordinal numbers except one, two or three and twenty-one, thirty-two, fifty-three..., etc. fifth - eleventh - hundredth
Listen and write down the words you hear.
A. 1. Which national days do we celebrate in Turkey?
2. Look at the picture and guess what Atatürk is celebrating.
B. Read the speech and say when it was delivered. Then complete the title.
MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK’S SPEECH ON THE
OCCASION OF THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE
It is now fifteen years since the War of Liberation commenced. Today is the day of celebration of the tenth anniversary of our Republic.
I. At this moment, as a member of the great Turkish Nation, I am very happy and excited that I have lived to see this great day.
My fellow countrymen,
(1) We have accomplished great things in a short period of time. The greatest of these is the Turkish Republic, which is based on Turkish heroism and on our great Turkish culture.
We owe this success to the determined forward march of the Turkish nation, together with her worthy army. We never think that what we have done is enough. (2) We are determined and obliged to accomplish more and greater things. We are going to advance our country to the level of the most prosperous and the most civilized countries of the world. We shall make it possible for our nation to acquire the necessary resources and means for her to live in nation-wide prosperity. We shalI attempt to raise our national culture above the level of contemporary civilization. Therefore, we think and shall continue to think not according to the lethargic mentality of past centuries, but according to the concepts of speed and action of our century. We shall work harder than in the past. We shall accomplish greater things in a shorter time. We have no doubt that we shall succeed in them as well; because the character of the Turkish nation is worthy and noble, (3) the Turkish nation is industrious and the Turkish nation is intelligent. Because the Turkish nation has been successful in overcoming hardships through national unity and togetherness. And because the torch the Turkish nation holds in her hand and in her mind, while marching on the road of progress and civilization, is positive science. I would like to point out with special emphasis that one of the historical characteristics of the Turkish nation, which is a society composed of worthy people, is to appreciate the fine arts and to advance in them as well. Therefore, (4) it is our national ideal to support and to develop the worthy and noble character of the Turkish nation, her industrious quality, her intelligence, her dedication to science, her love of fine arts, and her feeling of national unity always and with every available means and measure. This aim, which is one very suited to the Turkish nation, will make her successful in fulfiling her obligation to cultivate real peace in the entire world.
Great Turkish Nation!
During the last fifteen years, (5) I have made many promises to you to be successful in our undertakings. I am pleased that I have not failed my nation in any of them and given you cause to doubt me. Today, I speak with the same faith and assurance that, within a short period of time, the whole civilized world will once again recognize that the Turkish nation, moving unified toward the national ideal, is a great nation. I do not doubt that the long buried characteristics and abilities of the Turks will, as they progress, shine like a new sun on the horizon of the great civilization of the future. Turkish Nation,
I every decade which passes into eternity, I wholeheartedly wish that you celebrate this great national holiday with ever greater honours, happiness, peace and tranquillity. Happy is he who says “I am a Turk.”.
Ankara 29th October 1933
C. Answer the questions.
1. What is the greatest success that Turks have accomplished in a very short period of time?
2. Who do we owe this great success to?
D. Summarize Atatürk’s speech.
E. Match the words with their meanings.
Q 1. accomplish a. being in a lazy state
Q 2. prosperous b. a formal promise
Q 3. lethargic c. achieve something
Q 4. noble d. giving a lot of time and energy to something
Q 5. dedication e. great and good
Q 6. undertaking f. wealthy
F. Report the underlined sentences (1-5 ).
(0) Atatürk said that at that moment, as a member of great Turkish Nation, he was very happy and excited that he had lived to see that great day..
G. Tell about the main idea of the speech.
A. Rewrite the passage by reporting the quoted statements and questions. A TEAR DROP MORE PRECIOUS THAN A PEARL
‘Why do you look so sad?’ she asked her mom. ‘Because I am a mother,’she replied. The girl was still curious about her mother’s sadness. She went to her auntie and asked ‘What’s the matter with my mum?’ ‘Sometimes mothers feel sad for no reason,’ was all her auntie told her. This time she decided to make a call to her grandmother. ‘Granny, why do mothers cry so easily?’ she asked. Her grandmother said ‘Mothers are special.
Their shoulders are so strong that they can carry the weight of the world but so gentle that they never hurt their children when they hug them. They can keep going when everyone around gives up and take care of their children through difficult times and sickness without complaining. They are caring even when their children have hurt them badly. But there is always a drop of tear to shed. They use it whenever it’s needed. It’s their only weakness. It’s a tear for all human beings suffering around.’
Dedicated to All Mothers in the World
She asked her mom
B. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs given.
1. The first festivals started because of the anxieties of early people who (not /
understand) the forces of nature.
2. Harvest and thanksgiving festivals (inherit) from the times when agriculture was the
primary way of earning money.
3. It is seen that many modern people (still / follow) customs and traditions.
4. The most famous contemporary eating and drinking festivity, the Oktoberfest, (hold)
5. During the carnival in Rio, people in colourful costumes (dance) to the beat for days.
6. Benjamin Franklin and two other men suggested a design for a new national flag on June 14, 1777, since then it (celebrate) as the ‘Flag Day’.
7. There (be) various traditional festivals in Turkey which (keep) the rich
Anatolian culture alive.
8. During the Kirkpinar Oiled Wrestling Championships, a gypsy pipe-and-drum band
(provide) a spirited soundtrack in order to encourage the wrestlers.
9. Poems, messages and simple gifts such as flowers (send) on Valentine’s Day.
10. Ana Tarvis, from Philadelphia (begin) a campaign in 1907 to establish a national
Look at the cards below and design your own celebration card. Feel free to express yourself in as many words as you like.
that the coming year sparkles on you All that you ever wished for!
Happy New Year
Together with our parents, we Melisa Parker and Tames Brian invite you to share our happiness as we celebrate our marriage on
Congratulations on your birthday! With sincere wishes that the coming year be full of health, happiness and everything good for you.
Have a great B’day!
CHIEF IS AT A WEDDING
A police officer in a small town stopped a motorist who was speeding down main street. ‘But officer,’ the man began, ‘I can explain.’
‘Just be quiet,’ snapped the officer, ‘I’m going to let you cool your heels in jail until the chief gets back.’
‘But, officer, I just wanted to say...’
‘And I told you to keep quiet! You’re going to jail!’
A few hours later, the officer looked in on his prisoner and said, ‘Lucky for you that the chief is at his daughter’s wedding. He’ll be in a good mood when he gets back.’
‘Don’t count on it,’ answered the fellow in the cell. ‘I’m the groom!’
Etiketler : feast celebrations